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Effluent is generated in many manufacturing industries like textile, pharmaceuticals and chemicals, tanneries etc. Contaminated water cannot be released without treatment as it contains toxic and non-toxic chemicals. Releasing it may cause contamination of the existing pure water and will affect the environment. As a result ETP’s are installed in most manufacturing industries.

The Effluent treatment plants (ETP) are used for the removal of high amounts of organic compounds, debris, dirt, grit, pollution, toxic, non-toxic materials and polymers etc. from industrial effluent. The ETP plants use evaporation and drying methods and other auxiliary techniques such as centrifuging, filtration , incineration for chemical processing and effluent treatment.

ETP Plant Operation
  1. 1. Screen Chamber:-
  2. This chamber removes relatively large solid to avoid abrasion of mechanical equipment and clogging of hydraulic system.

  3. 2. Collection Tank:-
  4. The collection tank collects the effluent water from the screening chamber, stores and then pumps it to the equalization tank.

  5. 3. Equalization Tank:-
  6. he effluents do not have similar concentration at all the time; the pH will vary time to time.

    Effluents are stored for up to 8 to 12 hours in an equalization tank resulting in the homogenous mixing of effluents and helping in neutralization.

    Continuous mixing also eliminates settling of solids within the equalization tank.

    Reduces SS, TSS.

  7. 4.Flash mixer:-Coagulants are added to the effluents:
  8. Lime:(800-1000 ppm) To correct the pH upto8-9

    Alum: (200-300 ppm) To remove colour

    Poly electrolyte : ( 0.2 ppm) to settle the suspended matters and reduce SS, TSS.

  9. The addition of the above chemicals by efficient rapid mixing facilitates homogeneous combination of flocculates to produce micro flocs.
  10. Clarriflocculator:-
  11. In the clarriflocculator the water is circulated continuously by a stirrer.

    Flocculation provides slow mixing that leads to the formation of macro flocs, which then settles in the clarifier zone.

    Overflowing water goes out to the aeration tank.

    The solid particles settle down, and are collected separately; this reduces SS, TSS.

    The settled solids i.e. primary sludge is pumped into sludge drying beds.